Different Ways of Moving Data from SQL Server to Azure SQL Database

I have been asked many times about how to move data from SQL Server to Azure SQL Database. There are many different scenarios – it can be database migration from on-premises to Azure, or archiving / backing up data to Azure SQL database, or keeping two databases in sync to help manage the application migration.  So, I am going to provide a summary of different ways to move data from SQL Server to Azure SQL Database, and I will provide details on each different way and what scenario it is suitable to be applied.